How Dynasties Have Ruled the World and How Global Emerging Unipolarity is Being Challenged

Throughout history, different dynasties and empires have risen and fallen, each with its own unique approach to ruling the world. From the Roman Empire to the Mongol Empire to the British Empire, the world has seen various examples of how a single power dominates global affairs for many decades. For the last several decades, United States had emerged to become a superpower on the back of a very strong economy, growth and innovation driven enterprises and advanced scientific research.

However, in recent years, the emerging unipolarity in the world has been challenged by several emerging powerful countries, leading to a shift in the balance of power. In this blog post, we’ll explore how dynasties have ruled the world and how the current unipolarity is being challenged.

Dynasties and Empires

Dynasties and empires have been a dominant force throughout history, with powerful leaders using their military, economic, and political might to extend their influence over large areas. From the Persian Empire to the Chinese dynasties to the Ottoman Empire, these powerful entities have shaped world affairs and left a lasting impact on the societies they conquered.

One of the most notable examples of dynasty rule is the Roman Empire. At its height, the Roman Empire controlled much of the known world, with its legions conquering lands as far as modern-day Britain, Egypt, and Iraq. The empire was ruled by a series of emperors, each with their own strengths and weaknesses, who used military force, trade, and diplomacy to extend their influence.

Another example is the Mongol Empire, which was founded by Genghis Khan in the 12th century. The Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire in history, with its armies conquering lands as far as Eastern Europe and the Middle East. The Mongols ruled through a system of tribute and control, with conquered lands required to pay tribute and accept Mongol rule.

The British Empire is another example of dynasty rule, which lasted from the 16th to the 20th century. At its height, the British Empire controlled a quarter of the world’s population and land area, with its navy dominating the seas and its industrial might driving global trade. Also at its peak, they used to say “the sun never sets on the British Empire.”

Challenging Unipolarity

In recent years, the emerging unipolarity in the world, which has been dominated by the United States, has been challenged by several emerging powerful countries. China, Russia, and India are all vying for greater influence in global affairs, with each country using its own unique approach to assert its power.

China, for example, has been using its economic power to extend its influence, investing heavily in infrastructure projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. It has also been building up its military capabilities, with a focus on developing advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence and quantum computing. It has also expanded its influence through it’s One Belt One Road initiative ‘OBOR.’ The OBOR initiative is a Chinese economic and strategic agenda by which the two ends of Eurasia, as well as Africa and Oceania, are being more closely tied along two routes–one overland and one maritime.

Russia, on the other hand, has been using its military power to extend its influence, intervening in conflicts such as the Syrian civil war and the Ukraine crisis. It has also been accused of using cyber warfare and propaganda to undermine the influence of Western democracies.

India has been using its soft power to extend its influence, promoting its culture, religion, and language through institutions such as the Indian Council for Cultural Relations. It has also been building up its military capabilities, with a focus on developing advanced technologies such as hypersonic missiles and artificial intelligence.

Throughout history, dynasties and empires have risen and fallen, each with its own unique approach to ruling the world. However, in recent years, the emerging unipolarity in the world has been challenged by several emerging powerful countries, leading to a shift in the balance of power. It remains to be seen how this shift will play out, but one thing is clear: the world is once again in a period of transition and change, with new powers vying for influence.

Global Geopolitics.


As we stand today, the size of the world GDP is estimated to be $70 trillion and the global population has registered to the level of 6.8 billion. However, the dispersion of income and power play amongst nations is clearly unbalanced. Today, USA is supposed to be the only superpower in the world, but that title is fast fading amidst rising Asian forces from China and India. In terms of population, the world has been exploding at an exponential pace. With the global population crossing the 6 bn. mark in the year 2000, things started changing rapidly. Now, China and India jointly comprising around 37% of the global population and the power balance is shifting.

We live in the information age today, where knowledge truly is power and economic prowess of a nation only can lead it forward in the global superpower race. There is no denying to the fact that USA would have a difficult time retaining its unipolar strength in these changing dynamics.

In order to gauge any country’s economic power and relative strength, we have to consider the following criteria in mind, amongst other things:

  • Technological Edge
  • Geographical Advantage
  • Access to Water
  • Access to Energy Sources
  • Supply of Food Channels
  • Economy’s fundamentals

USA versus China:

It might not be the biggest land area covering country on the face of earth, but USA is a huge economic force with its GDP standing at $14.26 trillion (20% of the global GDP), the country is ahead on the technology curve and thrives on innovation spearheaded by entrepreneurial activity spread all over and the country focusing its efforts on high-end value-added service sector accounting for about 77% of its GDP.

Geographically, USA has clear advantages over other upcoming superpowers. It is practically sharing borders with only two countries: Canada on the northern end and Mexico on the Southern end. Additionally, one very important point is clear in the picture below that USA has access to water from two of the largest oceans in the world, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and it also reaches the Gulf of Mexico on the south-eastern end.

Although 71% of earth is practically water, the geopolitical climate of the world dictates that water would be a major reason for clashes in the next big World War. Here, USA clearly has edge over its chief rivals in the power game.

The off-shore oil exploration seems to be more practical again in USA’s case due to access to various oceans. At this point, it is noticeable that the per capita consumptions of oil in USA compared to China are huge. According to, USA consumed 68.672 bbl/day of oil per 1000 people whereas the consumption of oil in China stood at only 5.733 bbl/day per 1000 people (2007 data). This is definitely going to change with China working out as the ‘Global Factory’ for all the top companies all over the world. Moreover, with the increasing level of urbanization and increasing income levels in Asian countries, the per capita energy consumption is bound to shoot up.

China has a very different geography to deal with, having 14 nations bordering the country, it needs to diplomatically champion its ties with them in such a way so as to assure not only geographic security, but also economic prosperity. China borders with Afghanistan(76 km), Bhutan (470 km), Burma (2,185 km), India (3,380 km), Kazakhstan (1,533 km), North Korea (1,416 km), Kyrgyzstan (858 km), Laos (423 km), Mongolia (4,677 km), Nepal (1,236 km), Pakistan (523 km), Russia (northeast) (3,605 km), Russia (northwest) (40 km), Tajikistan (414 km) and Vietnam (1,281 km).

Due to its geographic position, China’s sea routes pass several different countries coming from the Arabian Sea on the west, and this wet bulk (Crude oil) transportation is especially risk-prone considering any unstable conditions in the region. It, therefore, makes perfect economic sense for China to help Pakistan develop Gwadar Port and adjoining infrastructure in the Baluchistan province so that the trade route for China becomes more manageable.

Also, the reason for China’s keen interest in the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline and other oil/gas exploration and transportation projects in and through the Central Asian countries is the importance of these to China’s geo-strategic success. As the country grows further, so will its energy demands and consequently, it would need to focus on developing sustainable solutions for energy issues through the Central Asian Republic countries and other countries on its western border.

To sum up, China is an evolving power center; it has to develop and crystallize a range of strategies for geo-political security amongst other developments. So far it has been doing a good job in making sure that its long-term sustenance is not sabotaged by geographic challenges. It has to work on many different projects to achieve the status of a super power in this unipolar world.

Courtesy for data and graphs is CIA The World Factbook and World Consumption & Production data is taken from US Energy Information Administration Website.

Shipping Industry in Pakistan


Pakistan is a country of 170 million people, who are spread all over and it has been blessed with the best natural and human resources. It has the hills and mountains, a 1000 km long coast line, sea, lakes and rivers, valleys, oil and gas fields, mines and huge natural resources through capacity to grow staple food products to fruits and vegetables.  Pakistan borders with China, India and Afghanistan and is one of the easiest sea route for transfer of goods to Afghanistan, China and India (especially the first two).

Shipping is one of the sectors in Pakistan that has not been well-planned largely on account of short-sighted government policies more than anything else.  It is a sector that can lead to great synergies in exploring the potential of the country’s geographical location. The continuing work on the Gwadar port in collaboration with China is possible because everyone stands to benefit out of the win-win situation. With China trying to reduce its dependence on the sea route through Arabian Sea where there is a much higher security risk and risk of interruptions, it envisioned a possibility of having Gwadar serve their interests in difficult times. As it is, once Gwadar port is online, China would be assured of a far more safer and easier sea route to Gwadar port for deliveries coming from the Middle Eastern region through the Arabian sea

On comparison, Pakistan seems to be lacking in many different areas as the radar chart (source: WorldBank database) below indicates. It is interesting to note that although Pakistan fares roughly equal to other lower middle income countries in the region, however, in comparison to its neighbour China, it definitely has a lot of learn and implement and there is ample room for improvement in all the areas of operation and management. The highest gains can be made in the infrastructure, where government-private sector relationships and government’s iron-willed determination and honest commitment could do wonders.

If Pakistan is willing to chalk out its strategy for trade and production management, the country can claim massive gains in the fields of shipping, logistics, trading, manufacturing, rentals generated by government and semi-government institutions for various infrastructure facilities’ usage such as storage & handling charges. Moreover, development of ancillary industries could thrive due to the ripple effect. Such a policy would bring in all the stakeholders on the decision table and take them into confidence on the longer-term beyond-the-nose kind of planning not seen of late. This would entail not only vague ideas but practical plans and milestones in each domain and follow through of ideas till implementation and post-implementation support.

Given the geo-strategic positioning of the country and the enhanced value of the location in light of the emergence of a stronger China and a post-war Afghanistan (being a land-locked country), Pakistan can definitely capitalize on the opportunity to develop a brighter tomorrow for itself, rather than depending on the foreign aid to push through this difficult time. In fact, this country has the potential to become a major shipping center in the region once it streamlines the infrastructure deployment, brings in competent people management and the government is able to control the security situation in the country.